Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) Topics Cover:

Structure and function of organ systems
Homeostasis mechanisms
Pathophysiological processes
Metabolic pathways and their regulation
Genetic information flow
Microbiology and Immunology
Common pathogens and their mechanisms
Immune response and immunizations
Drug classes and mechanisms of action
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
Adverse effects and contraindications
Cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, hematologic, and infectious diseases
Diagnosis, management, and treatment protocols
Preoperative and postoperative care
Common surgical conditions and procedures
Surgical anatomy and complications
Growth and development milestones
Pediatric diseases and their management
Vaccination schedules
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care
Common gynecological conditions
Psychiatric disorders and their management
Psychotherapy techniques
Trauma and resuscitation
Acute care management
Emergency procedures
Comprehensive and focused histories
Identifying chief complaints and associated symptoms
Systematic examination techniques
Ordering and interpreting laboratory tests
Imaging modalities (X-rays, CT, MRI, Ultrasound)
Venipuncture and IV insertion
Suturing and wound care
Basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS)
Injections (intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal)
Prescribing practices
Patient education on medications
Non-Pharmacologic Treatments
Dietary modifications
Behavioral interventions
Developing and implementing treatment plans
Monitoring patient progress
Adjusting treatments based on patient response
Differential diagnosis development
Evidence-based medicine
Risk-benefit analysis
Ethical and Legal Issues
Professionalism and patient rights
Patient-centered communication
Interdisciplinary communication
Accurate and thorough medical records
Legal aspects of documentation
Guidelines for common screenings (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular)
Lifestyle counseling (nutrition, exercise, smoking cessation)
Cell structure and function
Cell signaling and communication
Cell cycle and apoptosis
Musculoskeletal system: bone, muscle, joint structure, and function
Nervous system: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
Cardiovascular system: heart anatomy, blood vessels, blood flow dynamics
Respiratory system: lung anatomy, gas exchange, mechanics of breathing
Gastrointestinal system: digestive tract, liver, pancreas
Renal system: kidney structure, nephron function, urine formation
Endocrine system: hormone-producing glands and hormone actions
Reproductive system: male and female reproductive anatomy, gametogenesis
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
Gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycogenesis
Lipid metabolism: beta-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis
Protein metabolism: amino acid catabolism, urea cycle
DNA replication, transcription, translation
Gene regulation, epigenetics
Genetic mutations and their consequences
Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Antibiotic mechanisms and resistance
Virus structure, replication, pathogenesis
Fungal infections and antifungal treatments
Common parasites, life cycles, treatment options
Innate and adaptive immunity
Immune cells and their functions
Vaccination principles and schedules
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion
Drug-receptor interactions, dose-response relationships
Analgesics, anesthetics, antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antipyretics
Cardiovascular drugs: antihypertensives, antiarrhythmics, anticoagulants
Endocrine drugs: insulin, oral hypoglycemics, thyroid hormones
Neurological and psychiatric drugs: antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics
Gastrointestinal drugs: antiemetics, laxatives, proton pump inhibitors
Coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, hypertension
Diagnostic tests: ECG, echocardiography, stress testing
Treatment options: medications, interventions, lifestyle modifications
Asthma, COPD, pneumonia, lung cancer
Diagnostic tools: spirometry, chest X-ray, CT scan
Treatment strategies: bronchodilators, steroids, oxygen therapy
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver diseases
Diagnostic procedures: endoscopy, liver function tests, imaging
Treatment plans: dietary changes, medications, surgical options
Acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis
Diagnostic methods: urinalysis, blood tests, renal biopsy
Management: dialysis, medications, fluid and electrolyte balance
Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, adrenal disorders, osteoporosis
Diagnostic criteria: blood glucose levels, hormone assays, imaging
Therapeutic approaches: hormone replacement, medications, lifestyle modifications
Preoperative assessment, postoperative care, wound healing
Common procedures: appendectomy, cholecystectomy, hernia repair
Surgical complications: infections, bleeding, thromboembolism
Orthopedic surgery: fractures, joint replacements, arthroscopy
Cardiovascular surgery: CABG, valve replacement, aneurysm repair
Neurosurgery: craniotomy, spinal surgery, intracranial pressure management
Developmental milestones: motor skills, language, social development
Pediatric nutrition and feeding practices
Infectious diseases: otitis media, bronchiolitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease
Chronic conditions: asthma, diabetes, congenital heart disease
Vaccination schedules and preventive care
Prenatal care: screening tests, fetal development, maternal health
Labor and delivery: stages of labor, pain management, delivery techniques
Postnatal care: postpartum recovery, breastfeeding support
Menstrual disorders, contraception, sexually transmitted infections
Common gynecologic conditions: endometriosis, fibroids, polycystic ovary syndrome
Gynecologic cancers: cervical, ovarian, endometrial
Depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia
Substance use disorders: alcohol, opioids, stimulants
Treatment modalities: psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy
Suicide risk assessment, acute psychosis management, violence prevention
Initial assessment (primary and secondary survey), stabilization
Management of specific injuries: head trauma, chest trauma, abdominal trauma, fractures
Myocardial infarction, stroke, anaphylaxis, sepsis
Emergency procedures: intubation, central line placement, thoracostomy
Chief complaint, history of present illness
Past medical history, surgical history, family history
Social history, occupational history, lifestyle factors
Focused history for specific complaints
Detailed questioning related to symptoms, onset, duration, severity, associated factors
Head-to-toe examination: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation
System-specific examinations: neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, abdominal, musculoskeletal
Recognizing Normal vs. Abnormal Findings
Identifying clinical signs of diseases
Differentiating benign from serious conditions
Complete blood count, metabolic panels, liver function tests, thyroid function tests
Specific disease markers: cardiac enzymes, inflammatory markers, hormone levels
X-rays: indications, interpretation of common findings
Ultrasound: abdominal, pelvic, vascular applications
CT and MRI: indications, interpretation of common findings
Recognizing normal and abnormal rhythms
Identifying ischemic changes, arrhythmias, conduction abnormalities
Venipuncture: techniques, complications, patient comfort
IV insertion: techniques, sites, troubleshooting
Suturing: techniques, types of sutures, wound closure
Wound care: cleaning, dressing, managing infections
Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS): protocols, drug administration, CPR techniques
Injections: techniques for intramuscular, subcutaneous, intradermal injections
Writing prescriptions, calculating dosages, adjusting for renal/hepatic impairment
Identifying potential interactions, adjusting therapy accordingly
Patient education on avoiding harmful combinations
Patient Education on Medications
Informing about indications, dosage, potential side effects, adherence importance
Indications, exercises, patient instructions
Nutritional counseling, special diets for specific conditions (e.g., diabetic diet, low-sodium diet)
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, stress management techniques
Developing and Implementing Treatment Plans
Personalized care plans based on patient history and diagnosis
Multidisciplinary approach involving specialists, therapists, social workers
Regular follow-ups, adjusting treatment based on patient response
Recognizing and managing complications or side effects
Titrating medications, changing therapy based on new evidence or patient changes
Differential Diagnosis Development
Systematic approach to ruling in and ruling out conditions
Utilizing clinical guidelines and evidence-based medicine
Applying clinical research to practice
Critical appraisal of literature and guidelines
Weighing potential benefits of treatment against possible risks
Shared decision-making with patients
Explaining procedures, risks, and benefits to patients
Ensuring patient understanding and voluntary agreement
Maintaining patient privacy and security of medical records
Legal obligations and exceptions to confidentiality
Professionalism and Patient Rights
Ethical principles in patient care
Addressing dilemmas and conflicts of interest
Building rapport, active listening, empathy
Communicating complex information in understandable terms
Strategies for delivering difficult diagnoses or prognoses
Providing support and resources for patients and families
Understanding and respecting cultural differences in healthcare
Providing equitable care to diverse populations
Roles and responsibilities of different healthcare team members
Effective communication and coordination within teams
Sharing information across specialties and disciplines
Collaborative decision-making processes
Accurate and Thorough Medical Records
Proper documentation of patient encounters, treatments, and outcomes
Legal and regulatory requirements for medical records
Understanding the importance of accurate records in legal contexts
Cancer screenings (e.g., mammograms, colonoscopies)
Cardiovascular risk assessments (e.g., lipid panels, blood pressure monitoring)
Current recommendations for children, adults, and special populations
Vaccine administration and patient education
Nutritional advice, exercise recommendations, smoking cessation programs
Addressing social determinants of health
Roles and responsibilities of different healthcare team members

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